Applied Radiology
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Applied Radiology is pleased to offer you a selection of free Journal-CME accredited courses to choose from, as part of your free subscription to AR.
CME
Accreditation/Designation Statement
These activities have been planned and implemented in accordance with the accreditation requirements and policies of the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint providership of IAME and Anderson Publishing.
The Institute for Advanced Medical Education (IAME) designates these Journal-based activities for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™ each. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
Please Note: Prior to January 1, 2023 these activities qualified for SA-CME credits.
Percutaneous and Transvenous Liver Biopsy
Amir Hossein Mostafavi Sterabadi, BS; Hassan Anbari, MBChB; Minhaj S. Khaja, MD, MBA; Baljendra S. Kapoor, MD
Estimated time for completion: 1 hour   •   Date of release and review: September 1, 2023   •   Expiration Date: August 31, 2024
Liver biopsy is an invaluable adjunct to laboratory findings in diagnosing and treating varioius liver diseases. However, the various methods of obtaining liver samples, their indications and contraindications, as well as the nuances and rationale behind choosing one method over another are not all well understood by interventional radiologists.
This activity is designed to explain different ways of performing liver biopsy and some other ancillary interventions to obtain liver tissue samples. We aim to explain the indications, contraindications, efficacy, patient selection, and potential complications associated with these procedures.
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A Radiologist’s Guide to Radiation Dose Index Monitoring
David W. Jordan, PhD; Andrew T. Dietz, BS, CIIP, CNMT, RT(N)
Estimated time for completion: 1 hour   •   Date of release and review: July 1, 2023   •   Expiration Date: June 30, 2024
Radiation dose index monitoring systems are widely commercially available and have been adopted in response to regulatory and accreditation requirements. They may or may not be implemented with radiologist direction or involvement. RDIM has capabilities and use cases that can directly benefit radiologists who understand how to take advantage of them, but these may not be the priorities of administration, IT, or other stakeholders.
This activity is designed to educate radiologists about radiation dose index monitoring systems, including their technology and system architecture, data collection and processing capabilities, end user analytics and applications, use cases in clinical quality management, and a review and overview of radiation dosimetry quantities used in medical imaging.
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Lung Ultrasound: A Practical Review for Radiologists
Samuel J. Tate, MD; Jeffrey Lin, DO, MPH; John P. McGahan, MD
Estimated time for completion: 1 hour   •   Date of release and review: May 1, 2023   •   Expiration Date: April 30, 2024
Lung ultrasound (LUS) has become a powerful bedside tool in diagnosing pathology, guiding procedures, and directing management. Knowledge and interpretation of artifactual patterns, true parenchymal structures, and signs unique to LUS will allow providers to utilize this modality in their care of patients. This activity is designed to educate radiologists about basic findings of lung ultrasound to help interpret images and refine differentials with this modality.
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Worrisome and Incidental Signs on Knee Radiographs in Clinical Practice: Malignant Primary Bone Tumors and Benign Bone Lesions
Mark Wieland, MD; George Morcos, MD; Irina Kapustina, MD, PhD; Derik L. Davis, MD
Estimated time for completion: 1 hour   •   Date of release and review: March 1, 2023   •   Expiration Date: February 29, 2024
A variety of imaging signs for worrisome and incidentally encountered primary bone tumors or tumor-like conditions are encountered in daily clinical practice on knee radiographs. Knowledge of their clinical presentations, imaging characteristics and outcomes helps to inform radiologists when further clinical evaluation is needed or to bestow peace of mind when no additional workup is required. This activity is designed to educate radiologists and radiologists in training about imaging signs of worrisome, and incidentally encountered, primary bone tumors and tumor-like conditions on knee radiographs to help guide clinical management.
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Worrisome and Incidental Signs on Knee Radiographs in Clinical Practice: Traumatic and Degenerative Lesions
Irina Kapustina, MD, PhD; George Morcos, MD; Mark Wieland, MD; Derik L Davis, MD
Estimated time for completion: 1 hour   •   Date of release and review: January 1, 2023   •   Expiration Date: December 31, 2023
A variety of traumatic and degenerative imaging signs are encountered in daily clinical practice on knee radiographs. Knowledge of their clinical presentations, imaging characteristics and outcomes helps to inform radiologists when additional imaging is needed or to bestow confidence when further work is not required. This activity is designed to educate radiologists and radiologists in training about worrisome traumatic imaging signs, and incidental degenerative and developmental diagnoses, on knee radiographs to help guide clinical management.
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Multimodality Evaluation of Fetal Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia and its Mimics
Ana Mitchell, MD; Simran Sekhon, MD; Kriti Gwal, MD; John McGahan, MD
Estimated time for completion: 1 hour   •   Date of release and review: November 1, 2022   •   Expiration Date: October 31, 2023
A variety of intrathoracic masses may present in the fetus and present as a mimic to congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Knowledge of their locations, ultrasound characteristics, and MRI findings helps limiting the differential diagnosis and guiding treatment. Jointly provided by IAME and Anderson Publishing Inc., this activity is designed to educate radiologists about fetal intrathoracic masses and distinguishing imaging features that will help in guiding management. Knowledge of the ultrasound and MRI features of these masses will help in differentiate these masses from congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Once this diagnosis can be made ultrasound and MRI may also be used to predict residual pulmonary tissue and other findings, such as liver herniating into the thorax, which will help guide fetal and neonatal therapy.
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Non-neoplastic Cystic Lesions of the Central Nervous System
Part 2: Idiopathic and Acquired Cysts
Orest Kayder, MD; Hamed Kordbacheh, MD; Sai Srikar Kilaru, MD; Imad Zak, MD, FACR
Estimated time for completion: 1 hour   •   Date of release and review: September 1, 2022   •   Expiration Date: August 31, 2024
A variety of non-neoplastic intracranial cystic lesions are frequently encountered on brain imaging. Knowledge of their locations, imaging characteristics, and clinical behavior helps limit the differential diagnosis and guiding treatment. Jointly provided by IAME and Anderson Publishing Inc, this activity is designed to educate radiologists about idiopathic and acquired intracranial cystic lesions encountered on imaging, including their frequency, clinical presentation, and distinguishing imaging features that will help in guiding management.
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Abdominal and Pelvic Imaging of Transgender Patients
Elainea N Smith, MD; Mohammad Ghosheh, MBBS; Kristin K Porter, MD, PhD
Estimated time for completion: 1 hour   •   Date of release and review: July 1, 2022   •   Expiration Date: Junel 30, 2024
The abdominal radiologist plays an important role in providing care for transgender and gender-diverse patients, regardless of whether these patients choose to pursue gender-affirming hormone therapy or surgery. Radiologists must be aware of the various treatment options and associated anatomic and pathologic changes in transgender patients to ensure accurate imaging interpretation. This activity is designed to educate radiologists about caring for transgender patients by reviewing relevant imaging findings of hormonal therapies, nonoperative procedures, and gender-affirming surgeries with a focus on abdominal and pelvic imaging. Creating an inclusive environment for transgender patients is also discussed.
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Trauma Imaging in Pregnancy: A Review of the Evolving Appearance of the Placenta on CT and Mimics of Placental Injury
Kaitlin M Zaki-Metias, MD; Mehrvaan Kaur, MD; Huijuan Wang, MD; Bilal Turfe; Nicholas Mills, MD; Yanruo Lu, MD; Bashir H Hakim, MD; Leslie S Allen, MD
Estimated time for completion: 1 hour   •   Date of release and review: May 1, 2022   •   Expiration Date: April 30, 2024
Pregnant patients infrequently undergo CT given the risk of radiation to the developing fetus. As such, when CT is performed on pregnant patients in emergent situations, radiologists may be unfamiliar with the appearance of the placenta on CT and its normal evolution throughout gestation. This activity is designed to educate radiologists about the normal appearance of the placenta on CT and its evolution throughout pregnancy, as well as differentiation of these ļ¬ndings from placental abruption.
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Imaging Upper Extremity Injuries in Pediatric Athletes
Jonathan R Wood, MD; Ghazal Shadmani, MD; Marilyn J Siegel, MD
Estimated time for completion: 1 hour   •   Date of release and review: March 1, 2022   •   Expiration Date: February 28, 2024
Pediatric upper-extremity sports injuries are common. However, the diagnosis can be challenging for radiologists who have limited experience in imaging children. Increased awareness of the imaging findings is critical in establishing the correct diagnosis and ensuring optimal patient management and outcomes. This activity is designed to educate radiologists about the radiographic findings of common acute and chronic sports injuries of the upper extremities in the pediatric population. Mechanisms of injury are also reviewed, as they impact the type of fracture that occurs. Additionally, the role of magnetic resonance imaging in complementing plain radiography is discussed.
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The Future of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents
Laura E Minton; Renu Pandit; WR Willoughby, PhD; Kristin K Porter, MD, PhD
Estimated time for completion: 1 hour   •   Date of release and review: January 1, 2022   •   Expiration Date: December 31, 2023
Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) dominate the current contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) market and are proven to increase the efficacy of diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. However, in the future it is likely that a personalized combination of contrast enhancement and image processing techniques will be used to optimize diagnosis and treatment planning while minimizing risk and cost. This activity is designed to educate radiologists about the future of MRI contrasts agents, including high relaxivity macrocyclic GBCAs, alternatives to GBCAs, and imaging processing techniques.
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Interventional Stroke Management: An Update
Ryan Holland, MD; Steven Benitez, MD; Addison Fortunel, MD; Andrew Brook, BA, MS; Deepak Khatri, MD; Allan Brook, MD
Estimated time for completion: 1 hour   •   Date of release and review: November 1, 2021   •   Expiration Date: October 31, 2023
As thrombectomy has become the standard of care for large vessel/arterial occlusions, the indications are initiated by proper imaging and understanding of the brain blood flow physiology. This two-part series examines the standard of care for acute stroke imaging and the latest techniques. The second part of this activity on stroke intervention will appear in the November-December issue of Applied Radiology.
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An Overview of Acute Mesenteric Ischemia
Arash Mirrahimi, MD, MSc; Charlotte Gallienne, MD; Hournaz Ghandehari, MD, FRCPC
Estimated time for completion: 1 hour   •   Date of release and review: January 1, 2021   •   Expiration Date: December 31, 2023
Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a true surgical emergency and a rare life-threatening condition, accounting for 0.01% of hospital admissions, with extremely high mortality rates (up to 69%). Poor outcomes remain prevalent despite advances in both diagnostic and treatment options over the last two decades
Early diagnosis and management are particularly important given that the highest incidence of AMI occurs in the elderly population, who often have multiple comorbidities leading to a worse prognosis. Biphasic contrast enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images have become the mainstay and standard of care for investigation and timely diagnosis of AMI.
As such, the importance of recognizing imaging features of AMI and timely communication of findings with the referring physicians is of utmost importance for diagnostic radiologists and always a worthwhile topic for review. We have therefore endeavored to provide a brief summary of the presentation of AMI, its causes, relevant anatomy, and most importantly, illustrated review of CT findings that delineate ischemic changes of the bowel and mesentery.
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